Threats to waders

Habitat loss:

· Wetlands being drained.
· Intertidal zones being destroyed.
· Grasslands being turned over to agriculture.
· Natural bays being turned into Marinas.

Loss of food supply:

· Caused by habitat loss.
· Over harvesting of shellfish.
· Collection for fishing bait.
· Destruction of fisheries.


· Subsistence hunting in some regions.
· Illegal sport hunting.


· Accidental spills of oil at sea.
· Accidental spillages of chemicals in rivers.
· Illegal dumping of chemicals in seas and rivers.
· Illegal ship tank flushing at sea.


· By recreation; quad bikes, jet skis, boats, sunbathing, horse-riding.
· Uncontrolled domestic animals such as dogs.
· Aircraft.
· High tide roosts.


· Natural avian predators such as Peregrine Falcon.
· Natural animal predators such as foxes.
· Feral animal predators such as cats, dogs and rats.

Add to all this the threat of climate change and sea level rises the potential for mass extinctions among the waders of the world is immense.

The nine major flyways used by migratory birds across the globe.

A flyway is the entire range of a migratory bird species (or group of related species or distinct populations of a single species) through which it moves on an annual basis from the breeding grounds to non-breeding areas, including intermediate resting and feeding places as well as the areas within which the birds migrate."
Gerard C. Boere & David A. Stroud. 2006.


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